Republic of China, a East Asian state came into existence after overthrowing the imperial Qing dynasty in 1912. Dr. Sun Yat-sen, the revolutionary leader presided over the newly formed Republic, thereby becoming its first President. The Republic of China continued to exist until 1949 when Communist Party of China established the People’s Republic of China on the mainland. Many of the nationalists from the newly established People’s Republic of China retreated to Taiwan (now also known as Republic of China) in 1949.