The concept that would become ‘Scrum’ in software development was first introduced to the world in 1986 by Hirotaka Takeuchi and Ikujiro Nonaka in the “New Product Development Game” (Harvard Business Review, January/February 1986). They defined their approach as a “flexible, holistic product development strategy” and proposed it would result in fast, flexible product development. They called it the holistic or “rugby” approach because, much like in a rugby match, one cross-functional team passes the “ball” back and forth on the way to the “goal line.” This was, and continues to be, in stark contrast to approaches that progress in a rigid, linear fashion.

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